10. IBM Roadrunner (US) – $100 million
The Roadrunner was built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA. It became operational in 2008, and was designed for a peak performance of 1.7 petaFLOPS. On May 25, 2008, it achieved 1.026 PFLOPS, becoming the world’s first TOP500 Linpack sustained 1.0 petaflops system. It eventually reached a top performance of 1.456 PFLOPS in November of the same year, retaining its top spot on the TOP500 list.
According to the Supermicro Green500 list, in 2008, Roadrunner was the fourth-most energy-efficient
supercomputer in the world. The supercomputer was decommissioned on March 31, 2013, and replaced with a smaller, more energy efficient supercomputer called Cielo. The purpose of Roadrunner was highly classified: to model the decay of the US nuclear arsenal.
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