7. Nicolaus Copernicus
was a Polish mathematician and astronomer whose discovery of the heliocentric model of the universe — in which the sun and not the earth is the center of our solar system — revolutionized the study of the cosmos. His estimated IQ scores range from 160 to 200 by different measures. His book, "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium" was banned by the Church after he died in 1543. The book remained on the list of forbidden reading material for nearly three centuries thereafter.