16. Francois Marie Arouet,
better known by his pen name Voltaire
, was born in Paris in 1694. His estimated IQ scores range from 190 to 200 by different measures. He was one of France's greatest writers and philosophers, known for his satirical genius and biting criticism of his country's noblemen. Throughout his life, Voltaire vigorously defended the distinction between natural science and philosophy. Many of his critical writings were directed against established philosophers such as Leibniz, Malebranche, and Descartes, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.