8. Gottfried Leibniz
was a German philosopher and logician who is perhaps best well known for inventing differential and integral calculus. His estimated IQ scores range from 185 to 205 by different measures. In 1676, Leibniz founded a new formulation of the laws motion known as dynamics, substituting kinetic energy for the conservation of movement. His contributed extensively to the philosophy of language with his work on necessary and contingent truths, possible worlds, and the principle of sufficient reason.