10. Thomas Young
was an English physician and physicist whose contributions to the fields of vision, light, physiology, and language led to many important discoveries in optics and human anatomy. His estimated IQ scores range from 185 to 200 by different measures. He was also an Egyptologist who helped decipher the Rosetta Stone. One of his most important discoveries was that the lens of the human eye change shape to focus on objects at different distances, which ultimately led him to determine the cause of astigmatism. He was also the first to postulate how the eye perceives colors.